Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, after skin cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men after lung cancer.
The prostate is a male sex gland. This is a small gland (the size of walnuts) and used for the production of semen, which is part of the semen or sperm. It is located above the rectum and below the bladder. The prostate surrounds the urethra, the tube carrying urine from the bladder to the penis as a sort of “floating” at the point where the urethra connects the bladder. Therefore, when the prostate grows, there is difficulty with urination or sex.
Prostate cancer is most common in older men. The prostate continues to grow during most of human life, so it is often the case of 60-year dangerous condition called prostatic hypertrophy prostate “enlarged” or benign (BPH), more common than prostate cancer. Many signs and symptoms of BPH are the same as prostate cancer.
Like many types of cancer, early detection and treatment improve the prospects of healing. In addition, prostate cancer is cancer that grows slowly. When developing the end of life, as often happens, the impact of this disease is minimal. In fact, many men with prostate cancer eventually die of causes unrelated to the cancer itself.
SYMPTOMS OF PROSTATE CANCER
At the earliest stages, prostate cancer can produce signs or symptoms. As the tumor grows, it can see the signs or symptoms of a specific, including:
* Difficulty beginning or end of urination
Beginning or end
* Difficulty urinating
* Force to reduce the flow of urine.
* at the end of urination.
* Painful or burning urination
* Urinary every time the number of small and often, especially at night.
* Painful ejaculation
*Blood in urine
* Inability to urinate
* Continuing pain in lower back, pelvis or upper thighs.
DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER
1. Dre. Must be part of an annual physical examination is recommended for men over the age of 40 years, according to the American Cancer Association. By entering a gloved finger into the rectum, the doctor feels the prostate through the intestinal wall surface. Suspicious masses, abnormal texture or violence will lead to further research.
2. Prostate specific antigen (PSA, abbreviation in English). This is a protein produced in the prostate that can be increased when cancer present. PSA level can assist physicians in monitoring patients with prostate problems.
3. Puncture / biopsy of the prostate. The only way to determine whether a suspicious mass was microscopically examined prostate cancer tissue samples taken from the area. These samples can be extracted by a needle placed directly into the prostate through the rectum or perineum (the space between the scrotum and anus). This procedure called needle aspiration puncture (Fna) or needle biopsy. Biopsies can also be obtained through the operation.
If there is cancer, several procedures, including x-rays, laboratory tests and computerized diagnostic radiology procedures will be useful in determining the extent of this disease.
STEP OR STAGE OF PROSTATE CANCER
Phase I (A). prostate cancer at this stage do not feel and do not cause any symptoms. Found only in prostate cancer and detected by chance.
Phase II (B). Cancer cells are found only in the prostate gland. Tumors can be detected through a biopsy needle, or with a simple digital rectal examination.
Stage III (C). Cancer cells have spread outside the capsule (covering) of the prostate into surrounding tissues.
Stage IV (D). Spread (metastasized) to lymph nodes (near or far from the prostate) or the organs and tissues located far from the prostate, bone, liver or lungs.
Relapse. cancer comes back after treatment. May be repeated in the prostate or elsewhere in the body.